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The Pressure Myth

by Dr. David A. Ross
illustrations by Jonathan Milo
Does a changing barometer truly affect our fishing success? Let science answer that question.

barometric pressureFISHERMEN SOMETIMES have ideas or opinions about the marine environment that do not stand up to scientific scrutiny. For example, many anglers believe that changes in barometric pressure strongly influence fish behavior—most notably their willingness to cooperate with anglers. Some have even written that fish can detect a change in barometric pressure before it occurs. An interesting notion, perhaps, though in almost all instances it is incorrect.

A rise or fall in barometric pressure, such as with an approaching cold front, usually means a shift in the weather pattern. And it is the change in the weather, not any fluctuation in barometric pressure, that affects both the fish and the fishing. In fact, most saltwater species probably aren’t even aware of barometric variations.

Pressure, whether in the air or in the ocean, is expressed by scientists as units of “atmosphere.” One atmosphere is defined as the pressure caused by the weight of all the overlying air at sea level—or 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi). Atmospheric pressure is often called barometric pressure because it can be measured by the height of the mercury column in a barometer. Changes in barometric pressure, therefore, indicate capricious weather. In general, low-pressure systems bring unstable conditions, often with precipitation and clouds. A rising barometer means high-pressure is approaching, the harbinger of stable and clear skies.

How much do fish respond to these day-to-day fluctuations? Consider that a normal value for barometric pressure is about 30 inches. Strong high pressure is about 30.70 inches. A powerful low, such as during a hurricane, can reach down to 28 inches or less. The difference between these two extremes (2.7 inches of barometric pressure) is equal to about .09 atmospheres. The barometric pressure difference from a simple passing cold front is only about .06 atmospheres.

The rate of a falling barometer also tells us how fast a low-pressure storm is approaching. A slow-moving storm would have a dip of about .02 to .03 inches of barometric pressure per hour; a fast-moving storm will drop the barometer about 0.05 to 0.06 inches per hour.

Simply stated, barometric pressure does not change quickly enough to magically turn the bite on or off. It certainly is one of the ingredients in the overall weather process, but temperature, cloud cover, wind direction and speed, and humidity can also affect fishing conditions. More importantly, the rate and amount of change in barometric pressure is insignificant compared to what’s going on below the surface.

Beneath The Squeeze

Pressure in the ocean, called hydrostatic pressure, increases with depth due to the weight of the overlying water. Water is almost 800 times denser than air; thus, hydrostatic pressure increases much more rapidly than atmospheric pressure. If you swim or dive just a few feet below the water’s surface, you feel this rapid increase in pressure.

At a depth of just 32.8 feet in the ocean, the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the pressure from the entire weight of the earth’s atmosphere as measured in pounds per square inch. In other words, at 32.8 feet, the total pressure, due to the weight of both the atmosphere and the water, is two atmospheres. At 65.6 feet it’s 3 atmospheres, and so forth.

Fish can tolerate hydrostatic pressure because they have a swim bladder containing a volume of gas, which they adjust to equal their environment. This enables most fish to comfortably make small and quick up or down movements in the water column.

barometric pressureIn the ocean, four main factors can change the hydrostatic pressure in the fish’s world. First, a fish naturally changes pressure around itself by making movements associated with feeding, swimming about, avoiding predators or trying to loose a hook. A small move can result in a relatively large pressure variation. For example, going up or down just 3.28 feet will decrease or increase the pressure on a fish by 1/10 of an atmosphere. One tenth of an atmosphere exceeds any reasonable change that might occur due to a fluctuation in barometric pressure. Equally important, when barometric pressure rises or falls, it can take more than a day to equal the change in hydrostatic pressure that a fish experiences in seconds during its normal up or down movements.

Second, tides can alter hydrostatic pressure. Assuming the fish stays in the same position, even a small three-foot rise in tide will increase the hydrostatic pressure by about 0.09 atmospheres. A low tide would decrease the hydrostatic pressure by a similar amount. Thus, within about a six-hour period from high to low tide, a fish would experience a fall of about .18 atmospheres of pressure. This is about twice what could be expected from the barometric pressure going through a major drop during a hurricane.

Third, waves make rapid and continuous changes in hydrostatic pressure. Two-foot waves, for example, will produce a change in pressure of about .06 atmospheres. This rapid change correlates to the period of the waves—about four to six seconds. Higher pressure comes when the crest passes; lower pressure occurs under the trough. When a storm approaches a coastal area, the waves, and the increase in hydrostatic pressure, will be considerably higher than during calm-weather periods.

The weight of the air itself is the fourth influence on hydrostatic pressure, but its effect is quite gradual. Barometric pressure associated with a major storm will dip (depending on the system’s rate of speed) by only .002 to .02 atmospheres per hour. This gives fish considerable time to make any necessary adjustments. When compared to the effects of the tide, waves, and normal movements of the fish in the water column, changes in hydrostatic pressure caused by barometric-pressure are trivial for saltwater fish. Even a dramatic change in the barometer will be lost to the everyday pressure changes experienced by fish under normal oceanographic conditions.

It’s a happy notion that one could simply consult the mercury column each morning to know whether it’s a better day for work or fishing, but it’s unlikely that barometric pressure alone can trigger the sudden bite that angling’s common wisdom often asserts.

MidCurrent Fly Fishing
Dr. David Ross is a scientist emeritus at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the author ofThe Fishermans Ocean (Stackpole Books). He is also a regular columnist for Saltwater Fly Fishing Magazine. He can be contacted at © 2004 Dr. David A. Ross and Saltwater Fly Fishing Magazine.
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  • Durval Filho

    Excellent article Dr. Ross.
    Shouldn’t be an increase the hydrostatic pressure by about 0.9 atmospheres as result of three-foot rise in tide?

  • Jodi

    I’ve been fishing around the internet for an explanation of the effect of barometric pressure on fish so thanks for clearing that one up for me.

    It seems you’re explaining this specifically for the effects on saltwater fish though. Does barometric pressure have an effect on freshwater fish?

  • mike

    Just curious as to what your opining would be as to how freshwater fish may be affected, if at all

  • Mike

    I would like to point out that the article is presented with ocean fish in mind. Inland fishing is quite different and here is an example of how that may affect fish behavior. A bullet shot into a volume of water slows more rapidly than one shot into the air. If external pressure surrounding a volume of water is increased/decreased the density of the water should increase/decrease causing a bullet to slow more/less quickly than a volume of water with stabile pressure. If fresh water fish are more sensitive to changes in weather conditions they are sensitive to changes in atmospheric pressure. Sensing a potential unknown duration of hybernation caused by weather changes should cause fresh water fish to feed more aggressively. Think like a fish, if a low pressure weather change was to cover your state, town, home for an unknown period and you knew you might be hybernated in your basement for an unknown period without food because of the atmospheric condition, wouldn’t you, based upon experience and instinct, consume a bunch of food to preserve yourself first? Declining presuure spurs aggressive feeding, low pressure is slow fishing. I don’t have a degree in this stuff just some 40+ years of fishing and sinus that trigger when the bp changes.

    • David Douglass

      Your analogy of fish to mankind doesn’t work due to fish being cold blooded while mankind is warm blooded–totally opposite worlds.
      That being said, people don’t have ‘swim bladders’ sitting on top of the stomach. The more they stomachs are full, the more a change in pressure affects them. So, as pressure drops the fish adjust downward to regain the ‘comfort zone’ their swim bladders already adjusted for when the pressure last changed.
      Fish feed more often during the rising of atmospheric pressure because the initial adjustment is, in most cases that lakes have, a movement toward shoreline feeding areas or secondary feeding areas just off of shorelines, but in both cases, more shallow or upward, is the key to remember.
      By eating, and thus filling the stomach, the fish’s body creates an increase in internal pressure, thus the swim bladder decreases to accommodate which also works very well for the increase in pressure in the water column caused by the increase in atmospheric pressure.
      All fish ‘adjust’ as pressure changes upward. All fish do not initially adjust when pressure changes downward because all fish do not find the same level of ‘feeding success’ when they feed. So the successful feeders adjust downward first to keep the comfort zone feel active for digestion purposes. The less successful feeders do some feeding as pressure drops simply due to ‘opportunistically feeding’ caused by the movement of the majority of the lakes food chain.
      And another fact to consider with this subject is, fish are not three dimensional thinkers as human are. Fish don’t learn or “know” that they are cold for instance. They don’t know that a storm is coming and thus need to stock up on food in order to live or survive. It is much much more simple than that.
      The reason fish ‘bulk up’ per se just before a major storm moves into a geographical area, occurs during the ‘peak atmospheric pressure point’ that occurs as the two weather systems collide along fronts. The atmospheric pressure in those areas becomes erratic, with up drafts of low pressure and down drafts of high pressure and this causes maximum adjustment with fish, NOT the sense that “I better feed because bad weather is coming.”
      Also, the longer a period of non-change, (stable barometer) in pressure the more fish feed during the period of adjustment when pressure does again, begin to change. It’s only due to more fish forming a feeding migration at the same time because all fish are in the same feeding patterns due to no interruption by atmospheric change previously, because there was a stable non moving atmospheric pressure period.
      Simplify all thinking on this subject by staying with simple biology as the reason for everything that fish do and don’t do.
      For instance the reason more fish feed on a rising barometer is because it is during this period that fish adjust upward and thus into shallow and thus into feeding grounds, which thus causes a better opportunity to feed successfully. And fish feed less when there is a dropping barometer because they already fed while the pressure was rising and also because in most cases the lakes have less feeding opportunity the deeper they adjust to.
      The only time that this would not be true is when there is a stable barometer for an extended period of time, say, two days or more. Any movement after a stable period causes opportunistic feeding as they see one another adjusting.
      Most of the time, this is not the case with atmospheric pressure changes due to the sun and moon causing positive ion level increases daily and thus an upward spike in pressure, which is caused by the moon’s orbit activity interrupting the sun’s cosmic particle bombardment on earth.
      And when I say ‘atmospheric change’ I am talking about a change of 30 In Hg to 30.18 In Hg or greater. A small change of 30 to 30.05 In Hg only affects fish with empty or full stomachs–hungry fish feed opportunistically while full fish adjust to expedite digestion comfort.
      A pressure change of lets say, 30 to 30.25 In Hg over a short six hour period, my records show, causes the largest bass in the lake to become very active feeding all along the feeding migration trail–from point of suspension/digestion upward to the point of feeding activity where the pressure ‘feels comfortable again’ in accordance with the current atmospheric pressure state.

  • David Douglass

    I have been charting data on an Excel Spreadsheet for ten years on every bass over four pounds. And atmospheric pressure is one of the 13 points of data for each fish. I have fished in Central Florida exclusively in all the popular lakes as a Bass Fishing Guide. Here is what my data indicates.
    When the pressure moves in any direction, right at the beginning of the movement, “The Fish Move” in order to adjust to the change. Simple bass biology; when bass move they use energy, they require food to sustain themselves and thus there is an increase in hunger. As the fish move, they come into contact with one another. Since all fish are ‘opprotunistic feeders’ they by moving, have the opprotunity to feed. Since hunger has increased due to adjustment, and there is more food sources presently moving, they feed. It is that simple.
    Now as to the weather situation, all the elements do play a part in where fish will ‘move’ to. Each body of water is different and therefore fish will, as they move to adjust, use the area that they have to their advantage. The type of cover, gradient, and food source, will determine the way they use an area.
    Bright conditions cause fish to stay close to protective cover. Variable cloudiness causes them to move to cover when bright light, and more away from cover when cloud cover occurs. An even mix of clouds and sun causes fish to move more often, which in turn has the same affect as pressure change.
    Atmospheric pressure change does NOT cause fish to feed, their need for food does. However anything that causes fish to move, causes fish to feed more often. It is that simple.
    So barometric change is beneficial and non-barometric change, is not. There is nothing more miserable than when atmospheric pressure does NOT change for extened periods, of days. Especially when water temperatures are low in the lower sixties or fifties. Temps in the seventies and lower eighties causes fish to need foor more often, as digestion speeds and metabolisms increase enough to cause fish to feed every other day or even every day.
    The angler’s “wise-tales” are exaggerations of a much more simple biological fact.

    • endlessgrowthdoom

      people and most animals burn more calories and need more food the colder the weather/ winter; so fish are opposite?

      • David Douglass

        Yes fish are the opposite because fish are ‘cold blooded’ and don’t even know that they are “cold”. However they automatically slow down body functions and therefore use less calories, move much slower, and therefore feed far less. Imagine you being in the water when the temperature is only in the 70 degree range. Fish thrive at this temp but you would not. This difference between fish and mankind only accelerates the more the temperature drops. At 50 degrees fish are fine although moving very slow and not feeding more than once during the week, but you would be dead in a matter of minutes.

        • Dimitris

          Hello from Greece. Your opinion is very interesting, but I want to ask you why the fishes prefer to move to deeper depths during the winter ? and why they come back again to shallow waters during the summer season ? (at least this is what happening here in Greek seas). My explanation is that temperature affects them in such a way leading them in deeper and hence more warm waters compared to shallow waters during the winter. So the temperature should play a role in all this.

          • David Douglass

            Fish metabolisms work best when their speeds are ‘relative or said another way, within the least-changing depth-range’ which stays within a 2-4 degree range of change, and less if possible.
            During winter weather patterns anywhere on the earth, there are far more extreme weather factor change amounts, with atmospheric pressure change, temperature change, wind-driven water currents in direction and volume, dominate sun spectrum color visibility change—overall food-chain species’ migration patterns.
            It is those ‘fishing factor norms’, which cause fish to seasonally migrate to a particular depth or ‘Home Depth’, occurring the least, that attract the natural physical sensors or receptors.
            For instance in winter weather patterns, there’s a very large degree change factor that the fish effectively negate, by moving to the ‘non changing factor’ zone-depth—-which is probably the second section of one atmospheric pressure, i.e. 33.8 foot depth, thus a 12-30 depths as swim bladder adjusts.
            Right now in Florida freshwater lakes, the depths of 1-8 feet bass experience the least change in weather factors when normal winter occurs,. However a 20-25 degree drop high-pressure cold front arrives and bass find normalized temps and pressure at 8-16 if they can find it, if they can only have 7-8 feet depths they enter a ‘suspended state’ in stress and discomfort until pressure decreases and temps begin to rise, usually a few days to return to a normalized state.
            SO the short answer is, They go deeper to a more normalized depth zone, warmest water, ideal pressure feel relationship with stomach status, dormant or slow water current boundary-depth, and temp-change is the least.
            Fish spend their entire lives, adjusting to solar and lunar positive ion production levels and their subsequent effects on global environmental aquatic factors.

  • NoOne

    Welcome to Obamas America where fish ain’t even allowed to make they’re own decision’s! Obummer the dicktator make fish stop bitiing at all time’s of all day’s! Discusting!

  • anon20857249875

    So this only applies to the ocean. Weasel wording made for a bad article. Nice try.

  • Ken Rowe

    All this is great information. Here are what my personal experiences in fresh water fishing lead me to believe-
    Warm water lakes where I live- Colorado (low humidity- average 50) are stocked with LMB SMB Wiper Walleye Crappie Bluegills Channel Cats Muskies and some pike.(Pike are mostly higher up and in colder water.)
    What I see and find interesting is that each species responds a bit differently in different weather patterns.
    For instance- It can be 2:00 in the afternoon, 90 degrees and dry. Then a storm comes through. -Keep in mind that on the front range, storms take about 10 minutes or so to move through. Sometimes you get a heavy rain or hail, other times nothing, but the storm is there. Prior to and up to the storm- nothing. during and just after the storm, the bite is hot.
    Mostly the bass are active. When they are done, after the storm passes, the smaller fish- crappie and bluegill become active.

    But if no storm comes through, then there generally isn’t any change in behavior, and fishing is pretty slow.
    (We rarely see a storm that lasts more than an hour during the summer months, so I don’t have any real clue as to behaviors in a long lasting storm.)

    During the colder months- Spring and Autumn, the bite primarily follows the same state of daylight- Early AM, mid AM, late PM and late evening, but if it is snowing- even lightly, they go deep and stay there. Fishing from shore is a rough way to go.

    Whats more interesting is that each species has a particular time they feed, it seems the largest species come before the smaller species- Walleye first, Blue Gill last. not the size or age of the particular fish.

    So, I really believe that any minute fluctuations in barometric pressure have no effect at all, and that any large change- which happens just before and just after a storm passes is coincidental at best. Darker conditions (clouds) and choppy water (wind) encourage the fish to come out of hiding, the swaying weed beds push the minnows and smaller fish out and they become easy prey. Predator fish become more active.

    But again, this is what I have experienced living and fishing in Colorado lakes. River fishing (they call them rivers, I call them brooks and creeks) mostly hold salmonids.
    Because there is not as much real estate or depth in those waters, each fish will actively feed all day long, but not heavily. Good times to fish rivers are just after sun up and just before sun down. Though some hatches occur at night and they will feed then as well.

    That’s what I have experienced personally, I hope it is meaningful information to somebody! lol
    Tight lines!